An Arabic-to-English transliteration-key for the essays and articles published on this platform.


Hamzah (ء) = ʾ

Bāʾ (ب) = B/b

Tāʾ (ت) = T/t

Ṯāʾ (ث) = Ṯ/ṯ

Jīm (ج) = J/j

Ḥāʾ (ح) = Ḥ/ḥ

Ḵāʾ (خ) = Ḵ/ḵ

Dāl (د) = D/d

Ḏāl (ذ) = Ḏ/ḏ

Rāʾ (ر) = R/r

Zāʾ (ز) = Z/z

Sīn (س) = S/s

Šīn (ش) = Š/š

Ṣād (ص) = Ṣ/ṣ

Ḍād (ض) = Ḍ/ḍ

Ṭāʾ (ط) = Ṭ/ṭ

Ẓāʾ (ظ) = Ẓ/ẓ

ʿAyn (ع) = ʿ

Ḡayn (غ) = Ḡ/ḡ

Fāʾ (ف) = F/f

Qāf (ق) = Q/q

Kāf (ك) = K/k

Lām (ل) = L/l

Mīm (م) = M/m

Nūn (ن) = N/n

Hāʾ (ه) = H/h


Wāw (و) as a consonant = W/w

Wāw (ـُوْ) as a long-vowel = Ū/ū

Wāw (ـَوْ) as a diphthong = aw


Yāʾ (ي) as a consonant = Y/y

Yāʾ (ـِيْ) as a long-vowel = Ī/ī

Yāʾ (ـَيْ) as a diphthong = ay


ʾAlif (ا) by itself = A/a

ʾAlif (ـَا) as a long-vowel = Ā/ā

ʾAlif Maddah (ـَآ) = ʾÂ/ʾâ

ʾAlif Maqṣūrah (ـَى) = Á/á


ʾAlif + Kasrah (اِ) = I/i

ʾAlif + Ḍammah (اُ) = U/u


Hamzah + ʾAlif + Fatḥah (أَ) = ʾa

Hamzah + ʾAlif + Ḍammah (أُ) = ʾu

Hamzah + ʾAlif + Kasrah (إِ) = ʾi


Fatḥah (ـَ) = A/a

Ḍammah (ـُ) = U/u

Kasrah (ـِ) = I/i


Fatḥatayn (ـًا) = an

Ḍammatayn (ـٌ) = un

Kasratayn (ـٍ) = in


Tāʾ Marbūṭah (ة) without a case-ending = H/h

Tāʾ Marbūṭah (ة) with a case-ending = T/t


Šaddah (ـّ) duplicates the consonant to which it is affixed (as in šaddah itself).


Note: I make a distinction between transliterations of Arabic writing in particular, and transliterations of Arabic in most other contexts: the former will reflect written Arabic literally, whilst the latter will reflect spoken Arabic, e.g., al-rāziyy and ar-Rāzī, respectively. In other words, I will follow the former when quoting Arabic text specifically, and the latter when not.